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IUCN/SCC Otter Specialist Group Bulletin
© IUCN/SCC Otter Specialist Group

Volume 16 Issue 1 Pages 1- 57 (April 1999)

Literature
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ANISIMOVA, E.I., SIDOROVICH, V.E., SHIMALOV, V.T. (1996). Helminthofauna of otter (Lutra lutra) in Belarus. Vyestsi Akademii Navuk Belarus Syeryya Biyalahichnykh Navuk 2, 103-106.
(Inst. Zool., Acad. Sci. Velarus, Minsk, Belarus).

Anonymous (1978). Red List of the Moldavian SSR. Otter (Lutra lutra).
(for further information please contact: J. Shergalin, Merktrans, Vaike Ameerika 8, EE 0001 Tallinn, Estonia).

BACON, C.E., JARMAN, W.M., ESTES, J.A., SIMON, M., NORSTROM, R.J. (1999). Comparison of organochlorine contaminants among sea otter (Enhydra lutris) populations in California and Alaska. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 18, 452-458.
(W.J. Jarman, Energy and Geosciences Institute, Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84108, USA; wjarman@egi.utah.edu).

Ben-David, M., Bowyer, R.T., Faro, J. B. (1996). Niche separation by mink and river otters: coexistence in a marine environment. Oikos 75:41-48.
(Univ. Alaska, Alaska Cooperat. Fish Wldl. Res. Unit., Fairbanks, AK 99775, USA).

BEN-DAVID, M., BOWYER, R.T., DUFFY, L.K., ROBY, D.D., SCHELL, D.M. (1998). Social behaviour and ecosystems processes: river otter latrines and nutrient dynamics of terrestrial vegetation. Ecology 79, 2567-2571. (address see above).

BODKIN, J.L., UDEVITZ, M.S. (1999). An aerial survey method to estimate sea otter abundance. Mar. Mamm. Survey Assess. Methods 1999, 13-26.
(James L. Bodkin, National Biological Service, Alaska Science Center, 1011 E. Tudor Rd., Anchorage Alaska 99503, USA).

Borgward, N., Culik, B.M. (1999). Asian small-clawed otters (Amblonyx cinerea): resting and swimming metabolic rates. J. Comp. Physiol. B 169: 100-106.
(Inst. Meereskunde, Abt. Meereszool., D-24105 Kiel, GERMANY; bculik@ifm.uni-kiel.de).

Brunström, B., Olsson, M., Roos, A. (1998). 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalent concentrations in livers from Swedish otters determined with a bioassay. Organohalogen Compounds 39: 149-150.
(Dept. Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 18A, S-75236 Uppsala, Sweden).

CARSS, D.N., NELSON, K.C. (1998). Cyprinid prey remains in otter Lutra lutra faeces: some words of caution. J. Zool. 245:, 238-244.
(Inst. Terr. Ecol., Hill Brathens, Banchory AB 31 4BY, Kincardine, Scotland).

CORTES, Y., FERNANDEZ-SALVADOR, R., GARCIA, F.J., VIRGOS, E., LLORENTE, M. (1998). Changes in otter Lutra lutra distribution in central Spain in the 1964-1995 period. Biol. Cons. 86: 179-183.

DALLAS, J.F., PIERTNEY, S.B. (1998). Microsatellite primers for the Eurasian otters. Mol. Ecol. 7: 1248-1251.
(Univ. Aberdenn, NERC Mol. Genet. Ecol. Initiat., Dept. Zool., Tillydrone Ave., Aberdeen AB24 2TZ, Scotland).

DOBSON, M. (1998). Mammal distribution in the western Mediterranean: the role of human intervention. Mammal Rev. 28: 77-88.
(Manchester Metropolitan Univ., Dept. Geog. Environ. Science, John Dalton Bldg., Chester Str., Manchester M1 5GD, Lancs, England).

DUBININ, E.A. (1999). Feeding of otter (Lutra lutra L.) in summer and autumn in the nortwestern Okhotsk region. Russ. J. Ecol. 30: 130-132.
(Russian Acad. Sci., Inst. Biol. Problems N., Far East. Div., Magadan 685000, Russia).

DURBIN, L.S. (1998). Habitat selection by five otters Lutra lutra in rivers of northern Scotland. J. Zool. 245: 85-92.
(Inst. Terr. Ecol., Hill Brathens, Banchory AB 31 4BY, Kincardine, Scotland).

van Eekelen, R., Reinhold, J. (1998). Zijn Biesbosch, Haringvliet, Hollandsch Diep en Volkerakmeer geschikt voor de otter? Zoogdier, 9 (3-4): 11-14.
(Molenvliet 50, NL-4791 GA Klundert, The Netherlands; romboutve@freemail.nl)

EFFENBERGER, S., SUCHENTRUNK, F. (1999). RFLP analysis of the mitochondrial DNA of otters Lutra lutra from Europe - implications for conservation of a flagship species. Biol. Cons. 90: 229-234.
(Inst. für Wildtierkunde, Savoyenstr. 1, A-1160 Vienna, Austria).

Elliott, J.E., Henny, C.J., HARRIS, M.L., NORSTROM, R.J. (1999). Chlorinated hydrocarbons in livers of American mink (Mustela vison) and river otter (Lutra canadensis) from the Columbia and Fraser River basins, 1990-1992. Environ. Monitor. Assess. 57: 229-252.
(Canadian Wildl. Service, Pacific Wildl Res. Centre, 5421 Robertson Rd., RR1 Delta, BC V4K 3N2, Canada).

ESTES, J.A. Otter-eating orcas - response. Science 283: 177.
(Univ. California Santa Cruz, US Geol. Survey, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA).

ESTES, J.A., TINKER, M.T., WILLIAMS, T.M., DOAK, D.F. (1998). Killer whale predation on sea otters linking oceanic and nearshore ecosystems. Science 282: 473-476.
(Univ. Calif. Santa Cruz, US Geol. Survey, Biol. Resources Div., A-316 Earth and Marine Sci. Bldg, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA).

EVANS, R.D., ADDISON, E.M., VILLENEUVE, J.Y., MACDONALD, K.S., JOACHIM, D.G. (1998). An examination of spatial variation in mercury concentrations in otter (Lutra canadensis) in south-central Ontario. Sci. Total Environ. 213: 239-245.
(Trent Univ., CTR. Environ. Sci., Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8, Canada).

FOX, A. (1999). The role of habitat enhancement in the return of the European otter (Lutra lutra) to Northumberland. J. Chart. Inst. Water Environ. Management 13: 79-83.
(Worchestershire Wildlife Trust, Worcester, England).

Garshelis, D.L., JOHNSON, C.B. (1999). Otter-eating orcas. Science 283: 176-177.
(Minnesota Dept. Nat Resources, 1201 E Highway 2, Grand Rapids, MN 55744, USA)

GUTLEB, A.C., KRANZ, A. (1998). Estimation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels in livers of the otter (Lutra lutra) from concentrations in scats and fish. Water, Air Soil Poll. 106: 481-491.
(Univ. Veterinary Med., Inst. Medical Chemistry, Josef Baumann Gasse 1, A-1210 Vienna, Austria).

HANSEN, N.M., JACOBSEN, L. (1999). Identification of musteild species: otter (Lutra lutra), American mink (Mustela vison) and olecat (Mustela putorius), by analysis of DNA from faecal samples. J. Zool. 247: 177-181.
(Danish Inst. Fisheries Res., Dept. Inland Fisheries, Vejlsovej 39, DK-8600 Silkeborg, Denmark)

HARDING, L.E., HARRIS, M.L., ELLIOTT, J.E. (1998). Heavy and trace metals in wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otter (Lontra canadensis) captures receiving metals discharges. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 61: 600-607.
(Elliot, L.E., Environ. Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service, RR1 Robertson Rd., Delta, BC V4K 3N2, Canada).

HAUER, S., ANSORGE, H., ZINKE; O., HEIDECKE, D. (1998). Age structure patterns of otters (Lutra lutra) from eastern Germany. Sonderheft Zeitschrift Säugetierk. 63: 22.
(Inst. Zool., Martin-Luther-Universität, Domplatz 4, D-06108 Halle/Saale, Germany).

HEMPEL, G., TSCHIRCH, W. (1998). Die Dokumentation der Geschlechtsreife beim männlichen Fischotter (Lutra lutra L.) mittels Fäkalsteroid-Nachweis. Beiträge Jagd- und Wildforschung 23: 251-256.
(Landesuntersuchungsanstalt Gesundheits- und Veterinärwesen Sachsen, Reichenbachstr. 71-73, D-01217 Dresden, Germany).

HENDERSON, S. (1998). Sea otter decline. Mar. Poll. Bull. 36: 565.

HUGLA, J.L., DOHET, A., THYS, I., HOFFMANN, L., THOME, J.P. (1998). PCBs and organochlorinated pesticides contamination of fish in Luxembourg: possible impact on otter populations. Int. J. Limnol. 34: 201-209.
(Univ. Liege, Lab. Ecol. Anim. and Ecotoxicol., 22 Quai van Beneden, B-4020 Liege, Belgium).

IVANYUSHINA, E.A., RZHAVSKII, A.V., ZIMENKO, N.P., SHEVCHENKO, I.N. (1998). Foraging of sea otter in limited water area (Glinka Bay, Mednyi Island), The Commander Islands: state of food resources. Zool. Z. 77: 1168-1176.
(Russian Acad, Science, Kamchatka Inst. Ecol. & Nat. Management, Petropavlovsk Kamchatski 683000, Russia).

JACKSON, M.A., FERTL, D., BERGAN, J.F. (1998). Recent records of the river otter (Lutra canadensis) along the Texas coast. Texas J. Science 50: 243-247.
(Dagmar_Fertl@mms.gov).

JAMNICKI, J. (1995). Hunting of otter (Lutra lutra L.) in Slovakia one hundred years ago. Folia Venatoria, 25: 189-194. (ISBN 80-88789-08-7).

KAISER, J. (1998). Ecology - Sea otter declines blamed on hungry killers. Science 282: 390-391.

KANNAN, K., GURUGE, K.S., THOMAS, N.J., TANABE, S., GIESY, J.P. (1998). Butyltin residues in southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) found dead along California coastal waters. Environ. Sci. Technol. 32: 1169-1175.
(201 Pesticide Research Center, Inst. Environmental Toxicol., Dept. Zool., Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA).

KENNEDY, C.R. (1997). Long-term and seasonal changes in composition and richness of intestinal helminth communities in eels Anguilla anguilla of an isolated English river. Folia Parasitol. 44: 267-272.
(Dept. Biological Sciences, Univ. Exeter, Exeter EX4 4PS, UK).

KNOLLSEISEN, M. (1998). Fischottervorkommen an Donau und March. Forschungsinstitut WWF Österreich. WWF Studie 32.
(Gerald Dick, WWF Österreich, Ottakringerstr. 114-116, A-1160 Wien, Austria).

KOEPFLI, K.P., WAYNE, R.K. (1998). Phylogenetic relationships of otters (Carnivora: Mustelidae) based on mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences. J. Zool., 246, 401-416.
(UCLA, Dept. Organism Biol Ecol & Evolut., Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA).

KVITEK, R.G., IAMPETRO, P.J., BOWLBY, C.E. (1998). Sea otters and benthic prey communities: a direct test of the sea otter as keystone predator in Washington State. Marine Mamm. Sci. 14: 895-902.
(Calif. State Univ. Monterey, Monterey, CA, USA).

LARIVIÉRE, S. (1998). Lontra felina. Mammalian Species, No. 575: 1-5.
(Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, 112 Science Place, Saskatoon SK S7N 5E2, Canada).

LARIVIÉRE, S. (1999). Lontra longicaudis. Mammalian Species, No. 609: 1-5.
(address see above).

LARIVIÉRE, S. (1999). Lontra provocax. Mammalian Species, No. 610: 1-4. (adress see above).

LARIVIÉRE, S., WALTON, L.R., Lontra canadensis. Mammalian Species, No. 587: 1-8.

LEONARDS, P.E.G., BROEKHUIZEN, S., deVOOGT, P., van STRAALEN, N.M., BRINKMAN, U.A.T., COFINO, W.P., van HATTUM, B. (1998). Studies of bioaccumulation and biotransformation of PCBs in mustelids based on concentrations and congener patterns in predators and preys. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 35: 654-665.
(VU Amsterdam, Dept. Analyt. Chem., Boelelaan 1083, NL-1083 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands).

LEWIS, J.C.M., PAGAN, L., HART, M., GREEN, R. (1998). Normal haematological and serum biochemical values of Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) from a Scottish rehabilitation centre. Vet. Rec. 143: 676-679.
(Keighley Business Centre, Int. Zoo Veterinary Group, South Street, Keighley BD21 1 AG, W Yorkshire, England).

LIBOIS, R. (1997). Seasonal diet and feeding tactics of the European otter (Lutra lutra) in Central France. Vie et Milieu 47: 33-45. [in French].
(Institut de Zoologie, Universite de Liege, Quai Van Beneden, 22, B-4020 Liège, Belgium).

MEDINA, G. (1998). Seasonal variations and changes in the diet of southern river otter in different freshwater habitats in Chile. Acta Theriol. 43: 285-292.
(Univ. Austral Chile, Inst. Ecol. and Evol., Casilla 567, Valdivia, Chile).

MULLER, W.W., COX, J.H., HOHNSBEEN, K.B. (1998). Summary of rabies in Europe (April - June 1998). Rabies Bull. Europe 22: 3-8.
(Federal Research Centre for Virus Diseases of Animals, POB 1149, D-72110 Tübingen, Germany).

MURK, A.J., LEONARDS, P.E.G., van HATTUM, B., LUIT, R., van der WEIDEN, M., SMIT, M. (1998). Application of biomarkers for exposure and effect of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons in naturally exposed European otters (Lutra lutra). Environ. Toxicol. Pharm. 6: 91-102.
(Wageningen Agricultural University, Toxicology Group, Tuinlaan 5, 6703 HE Wageningen, The Netherlands).

NAKATA, H., KANNAN, K., JING, L., THOMAS, N., TANABE, S., GIESY, J.P. (1998). Accumulation pattern of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) found stranded along coastal California, USA. Environ. Pollut. 103: 45-103.
(Kannan, K., Michigan State Univ., Inst. Environ. Toxicol., E Lansing, MI 48824, USA).

van Niekerk, C.H., SOMERS, M.J., NEL, J.A.J. (1998). Freshwater availability and distribution of Cape clawless otter spraints and resting places along the south-west coast of South Africa. S. Afric. J. Wildl. Res. 28: (Department of Zoology, University of Stellenbosch, 7599 Stellenbosch, Rep. of  South Africa).

OVERAL, B. (1995). Presence de la loutre dans la Haute-Sure. Naturalistes Belges, 76: 315-322.

PARDINI, R. (1998). Feeding ecology of the neotropical river otter Lontra longicaudis in an Atlantic Forest stream, south eastern Brazil. J. Zool. 245: 385-391.
(Univ. Sao Paulo, Inst. Biociencias, Dept. Zool., CP-131, BR-45650000 Ilheus, Brazil).

PARDINI, R. TRAJANO, E. (1999). Use of shelters by the neotropical river otter (Lontra longicaudis) in an Atlantic forest stream southeastern Brazil. J. Mammal. 80: 600-610.
(address - see above).

PERTOLDI, C., MADSEN, A.B., RANDI, E. BRAUN, A., LOESCHKE, V. (1998). Variation of skull morphometry of Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) in Denmark and Germany. Ann. Zool. Fenn. 35: 87-94.
(Natl. Environ. Res. Inst., Dept. Ecol. Genet., Bldg 540, DK-8000 Aarhus, Denmark).

PETRINI, K.R., LULICH, J.P., TRESCHEL, L., NACHREINER, R.F. (1999). Evaluation of urinary and serum metabolites in Asian small-clawed otters (Aonyx cinerea) with calcium oxalate urolithiasis. J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 30: 54-63.
(Minnesota Zool. Garden, Apple Valley, MN 55124 USA).

PFEIFFER, P., CULIK, B.M. (1998). Energy metabolism of underwater swimming in river-otters (Lutra lutra L.) J. Comp. Physiol. B, 168: 143-148.
(Inst. Meereskunde, Abt. Meereszool., D-24105 Kiel, Germany; bculik@ifm.uni-kiel.de).

REIMER, D.C., LIPSCOMB, T.P. (1998). Malignant seminoma with metastasis and herpesvirus infection in a free-living sea otter (Enhydra lutris). J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 29: 35-39.
(Registry of Comparative Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washingtron DC, 20306-6001, USA).

Ruiz-Olmo, J. (1998). Influence of altitude on the distribution, abundance and ecology of the otter (Lutra lutra). In. Dunstone, N., Gorman, M.L. (eds.). Behaviour and Ecology of Riparian Mammals. Symp. Zool.Society Lond. 71: 159-176.
(Generalitat de Catalunya, Dept. d´Agricultura Ramaderia i Pesca, Subdirecció General de Conservació de la Natura, Gran Via de les Corts Catalanes, 612-614, 08007 Barcelona, Spain)

Ruiz-Olmo, J. (1997). The diet of the european otter (Lutra lutra L., 1758) in mediterranean freshwater habitats. J. Wildl. Res. 2: 171-181.
(address see above).

SAMPLE, B.E., SUTER, G.W. (1999). Ecological risk assessment in a large river reservoir: 4. Piscivorous wildlife. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 18: 610-620.
(Oak Ridge Natl. Lab., Div. Environ. Science, POB 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA)

SCHENCK C., STAIB E. (1998). Nutrias Gigantes - Lobos de Río, Giant Otters - Wolves of the River  In: MACQUARRIE K, BÄRTSCHI A. (eds.) Peru's Amazonian Eden: Manu National Park and Bioshpere Reserve, Barcelona, Spain, 246-255.
(address see above).

SCHENCK C., STAIB E. (1998). Status, habitat use and conservation of giant otters in Peru In: DUNSTONE N, GORMAN M.: (eds.) Behaviour and Ecology of Riparian Mammals, Cambridge University Press, 359-370.
(Am Bornrain 12, D-63589 Linsengericht-Grossenhausen, Germany)

SERFASS, T.L., BROOKS, R.P., NOVAK, J.M., JOHNS, P.E., Rhodes, O.E. (1998). Genetic variation among populations of river otters in North America: Considerations for reintroduction projects. J. Mammal. 79: 736-746.
(Penn. State Univ., Sch. Forest Resources, University PK, PA 16802, USA).

SHACKLEY, M. (1998). Designating a protected area at Karanambu ranch, Rupununi Savannah, Guyana: Resource management and indigenous communities. Ambio 27: 207-210.
(Nottingham Trent Univ., Nottingham Business Sch., CTR Tourism and Visitor Management, Burton St., Nottingham NG1 4BU, England).

SIMPSON, V.R. (1997). Health status of otters (Lutra lutra) in south-west England based on postmortem findings. Vet. Rec. 141: 191-197.
(Veterinary Investigation Unit, Polwhele, Truro TR4 9AD, UK).

SMIT, M.D., LEONARDS, P.E.G., de JONGH, A.W.J.J., van HATTUM, B.G.M. (1998). Polychlorinated biphenyls in the Eurasian Otter (Lutra lutra). Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 157: 95-130.
(Dutch Otterstation Foundation, De Groene Ster 2, 8926 XE Leeuwarden, The Netherlands).

SNYDER, D.E., HAMIR, A.N., NETTLES, V.F., RUPPRECHT, C.E. (1989). Dirofilaria immitis in a river otter (Lutra canadensis) from Louisiana. J. Wildl. Dis. 25: 629.

STRACHAN, R., JEFFERIES, D.J. (1994). Otter survey of England, 1991-1994. 223pp.
(The Vincent Wildlife Trust, 10 Lovat Lane, London EC3R 8DT, United Kingdom).

SWIMLEY, T.J., SERFASS, T.L., BROOKS, R.P., TZILKOWSKI, W.M. (1998). Predicting river otter latrine sites in Pennsylvania. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 26: 836-845.
(Pennsylvania State Univ., Forest Resources Lab., Sch. Forest Resources, University Pk, PA 16802, USA)

THEWISSEN, J.G.M., FISH, F.E. (1997). Locomotor evolution in the earliest cetaceans: functional model, modern analogues, and paleontological evidence. Paleobiol. 23: 482-490.
(Dept. Anatomy, Northeastern Ohio Univ. Coll. Med., Rootstown, OH 44242, USA).

TRINDADE, A. (1995). A brief reflection on the problematics of the conservation of the otter and wetland areas.
(Instituto de Conservacao da Natureza, Rua Filipe Folque 46, 11010 Lisboa, Portugal).

WAHLSTROM, K., NIKKILA, T., UGGLA, A. (1999). Sarcocystis species in skeletal muscle of otter (Lutra lutra). Parasitol. 118: 59-62.
(Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden).

WALZER, C., Walzer-Wagner, C. (1998). Enclosure bedding induced gastric foreign body in a European otter (Lutra lutra). Wiener Tierärztl. Monatsschrift 85: 319-321.

ZAGREBELNY, S.V. (1993). Pelage of sea otter Enhdra lutris: hair structure, topography, and some adaptive features. Zool. J. Russia, 72: 129-140.
(State National Preserve Komandorsky, Nikolskoe, Aleutian District, Kamchatka, 684500, Russia).

Zasypkin, M.Y., Burdin, A.M. (1997). Allozyme variation in sea otters (Enhydra lutris L., 1758): Description and genetic interpretation of markers. Genetika 33: 1250-1257.
(Inst. Biol. Probl. North, Far East Div., Russ. Acad. Sci., Magadan 685000, Russia).

Zasypkin, M.Y., Burdin, A.M. (1997). Allozyme variation in sea otters (Enhydra lutris L., 1758): Genetic heterogeneity within the species. Genetika, 33: 1258-1265.
(address - see above).

ZIMENKO, N.P., SHEVCHENKO, I.N., SANAMYAN, N.P., IVANYUSHINA, E.A., RZHAVSKII, A.V. (1998). Foraging of Sea Otter in Limited Water Area (Glinka Bay, Mednyi Island, The Commander Islands): I. Visual observations and analysis of scats. Zoolog. Zhurnal, 77: 1041-1050.
(Kamchatka Inst. Fisheries Ocean., Petropavlovsk Kamchatski, 683000, Russia).

ZYRYANOV, A.N., SMIRNOV, M.N., SHAPAREV, Yu.P. (1998). Otter in the Yenisei river basin. The Problems of Conservation of Poorly Studied Fauna of the North. Materials for the Red Data Book. Part I. Proceedings, Moscow, 1998 pp 24-31. Paperback. [In Russian with Engl. Summary].
(for further information please contact: J. Shergalin, Merktrans, Vaike Ameerika 8, EE 0001 Tallinn, Estonia).

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